Women’s Health Treatment



Estrogen therapy may affect the heart differently depending on the time in a woman's life when it is given: the younger and closer to her last menstrual period, the more favorable effect. When administered later in life, estrogen may increase the risk of heart disease.

Estrogen's effect on bone is positive. It can prevent and treat osteoporosis, but there are other medications, which can do the same.

Estrogen may stimulate breast cancers to grow. In large studies, the rate of breast cancer in women who take estrogen together with progesterone (because the latter is needed to protect the uterus) is slightly higher than women who do not use hormone replacement therapy. Women who do not require progesterone do not have a higher rate of breast cancer.

There are many types of estrogen and progesterone available.

Each woman should discuss the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy with her physician.


A decrease in the amount and strength of bone increases the risk of fractures. There are many conditions which may impact bone health, but the most common are estrogen deficiency and aging.

Inadequate vitamin D intake has recently been found to be more common than originally supposed. As women age, vitamin D absorption from the intestine may decrease. It is important to ingest at least 800-1200 units of vitamin D a day after menopause, from both food and supplements. Calcium supplements are also required.