Bariatric Surgery

The Health Benefits of Bariatric Surgery Beyond Weight Loss – Are They Real?

Jeffrey I. Mechanick, MD, FACP, FACE, FACN, ECNU
The Health Benefits of Bariatric Surgery Beyond Weight Loss

Bariatric surgery is a term used to describe a number of operations that are used to cause weight loss in people with obesity. When these procedures were developed many decades ago, they were designed just for weight loss and were associated with many surgical and nonsurgical complications.

However, two major changes have occurred recently which change the way we think about bariatric surgery. First, the main procedures that are used – gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and adjustable gastric band – are considered safe, especially in the hands of an experienced surgeon, at an experienced hospital, and when the benefits versus risks of surgery are reviewed for the specific person considering this surgery and the benefits clearly outweigh the risks.

Second, in the past few years, there has been better understanding as to the overall potential benefits of this surgery beyond just the obvious effect of losing weight. Specific to effects on blood sugars in the presence of diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure (hypertension), cholesterol and other conditions, there is now great interest about whether improving these conditions through surgery can have an impact on lowering the risk of future cardiac disease or improve the ability to live longer.

In order to better grasp this idea, let’s review some recent advances in the way we address obesity. In the past, obesity was considered to be a condition solely defined by an excess of body fat, determined by a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 (see and treated with advice to eat less or go on a diet and exercise more. Nowadays, with the benefit of growing scientific research and clinical trial information, obesity is thought of as a more complex disease, involving nearly every part of the body, associated with many “obesity- related complications,” and managed using preventive strategies and many more options and approaches that can help in targeting weight loss and specific complications. Obesity-related complications include insulin resistance, a condition where there is insulin present, but it does not work as well as it should; type 2 diabetes, the diabetes which is a combination of the insulin present not working as well as it should, plus less than normal production of insulin; hypertension; high cholesterol and triglycerides (the major form of fat stored by the body in fat cells); heart and circulatory problems; depression; arthritis; stomach acid reflux; sleep apnea; and many others.

We have many tools now, including more structured lifestyle approaches (healthy eating, physical activity, sleep hygiene and behavioral medicine), new medications and, of course, safe and effective bariatric surgical procedures. In short, obesity as a complex disease can be approached in many different ways and should not be managed simply with one intervention, but rather with many interventions strategically fitting a person’s individual problems and needs.

Before describing the benefits of bariatric surgery, we must first look at the appropriate time to consider bariatric surgery. According to many professional medical guidelines, and especially considering the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists’ (AACE) perspective on obesity care, lifestyle counseling should be initiated and maintained for all Americans, regardless of weight or other treatments, due to our constant exposure to an environment that is associated with obesity—keep in mind that two-thirds of all Americans are overweight or obese—a staggering number that is not being corrected nearly as fast as we would like. Depending on the presence and severity of obesity-related complications, a person with overweight or obesity may also need obesity medication or bariatric surgery. Your endocrinologist will be able to guide you through these decisions.

So what are the benefits of bariatric surgery? First and foremost, there is sustained and significant weight loss in many people, which may be seen long after the actual surgery is performed. Weight loss after bariatric surgery is usually expressed as a percentage of the excess weight lost and generally ranges from 30 to 70 percent at 10 years, depending on the procedure and other individual factors. Since weight loss can plateau after a number of years, continuation of lifestyle changes, possibly with more aggressive attention to changing lifestyle, must occur.

Obesity-related complications are generally related to weight; therefore the surgically induced weight loss can be associated with improvement in these obesity-related complications. In fact, as little as three percent weight loss with lifestyle changes can be associated with a reduction in risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, compared with bariatric surgery weight loss figures well over 30 percent. Patients with type 2 diabetes have actually been found to be in remission (off all diabetes medications with a target A1c, average blood sugar level, over two to three months of 6.5 percent or less for at least a year), with reports as high as 70 to 90 percent of the time. Although these improvement percentages might diminish over the following years, as physicians are now learning with longer follow-up of those with diabetes, there is active research into whether this improvement— either shorter or longer-term—can have a beneficial effect on cardiac disease risk, which is so high in those with diabetes. Remission rates of 40 to 80 percent are also seen for hypertension, high cholesterol and/or triglycerides, sleep apnea and depression.

Even though many of these obesity-related complications improve, many others may not reach targets. Thus, continued follow-up with a doctor experienced in the care of patients with obesity is strongly recommended. These follow-up visits focus not only on the physical examination and measuring blood pressure, weight and body fat changes, but also blood tests for cholesterol, triglycerides, blood sugar and electrolytes, liver and kidney function, A1c blood counts and, depending on the specific bariatric procedure, specialized testing for nutrients, bone function and other markers for potential complications of surgery.

Overall, bariatric surgery patients can live longer and healthier lives, but again, this is based on being properly selected for surgery, having an experienced surgeon and hospital and continuing to practice a healthy lifestyle, as well as engaging an expert such as an endocrinologist in postoperative obesity, nutrition and metabolic care. From an endocrinologist’s standpoint, there is a remarkable surge of interest in optimizing obesity care, spanning better education of physicians and other healthcare professionals, scientific research and clinical trials of new or improved therapies, a greater focus on prevention, and accelerating the use of structured lifestyle interventions. This is indeed an exciting time for all of us to become healthier, and a successful comprehensive approach to obesity, one that includes all people and their individualities, can make that a reality.

Weight-Loss surgery Guide

Gastric bypass surgery contributes to weight loss in two main ways: either by restriction, in which surgery is used to physically limit the amount of food a stomach can hold, or malabsorption, where surgery is used to shorten or bypass part of the small intestine, thereby reducing the amount of calories and nutrients the body absorbs.

Deciding to get weight loss surgery isn't an easy decision, and choosing a specific surgical approach will require a lot of thought and discussion with your physician. Here's some basic information to get you started.


Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most common type of weight loss surgery. It combines both restrictive and malabsorptive approaches and can be performed as either a minimally invasive (laparoscopic) or open surgery. In the operation, the surgeon divides the stomach into two parts, sealing off the upper section from the lower. The surgeon then connects the upper stomach directly to the lower section of the small intestine, essentially creating a shortcut for the food, which bypasses a section of the stomach and the small intestine. Skipping these parts of the digestive tract means that fewer calories get absorbed into the body. With Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, weight loss typically is rapid and dramatic. But, while this type of surgery causes rapid weight loss, it also puts the patient at risk of significant nutritional deficiencies, requiring diligent monitoring of diet and the need for supplements for the rest of the patient’s life. Gastric bypass is generally considered to be irreversible.


Sleeve gastrectomy is another form of restrictive weight loss surgery. In the operation, which is usually done with a laparoscope [lap-ah-rah-skop], a slender, tubular camera used to examine body cavities during certain types of surgery, about 75 percent of the stomach is removed. What remains of the stomach is a narrow tube or sleeve, which connects to the intestines. Sleeve gastrectomy is often used with people who are very obese or sick, since it is a simpler operation that is a lower-risk way to lose weight. Because the intestines aren't affected, a sleeve gastrectomy doesn't affect the absorption of food, so nutritional deficiencies are not a problem.


Gastric banding is among the least-invasive weight loss treatments. In this surgery, an inflatable band is used to squeeze the stomach into a smaller upper pouch and a larger lower section. The two sections are still connected, but the channel between them is very small, which slows down the emptying of the upper pouch, physically restricting the amount of food you can take in at a meal. Gastric banding is simpler to perform, recovery is usually faster than other procedures and it can be reversed by surgical removal of the band. However, weight loss from gastric banding is often less than that from more invasive surgeries.

Dr. Jeffrey I. Mechanick Is Clinical Professor of Medicine and Director of Metabolic Support in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. He has authored over 170 publications in endocrinology and nutrition and edited/authored five books in the fields of diabetes, nutrition, thyroid and metabolic bone disease. Dr. Mechanick is in private practice in endocrinology and metabolic/nutrition support in New York City. He is Immediate Past President of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE).

Good News Regarding the Treatment of Obesity

Alexandra Garvey and W. Timothy Garvey, MD

The American Medical Association’s (AMA) House of Delegates recently approved a resolution sponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) officially recognizing obesity as a disease. What does that mean to you and your doctors? What it means to members of AACE – which has been advocating the position for several years – is that obesity is a chronic disease just like diabetes, hypertension or asthma, with its own genetic, behavioral and environmental causes and medical treatment needs that require a range of prevention and treatment interventions.

Scientific research has given us a much better understanding of what regulates how much food we eat, how much energy we burn and the things that go wrong that result in accumulation of too much body fat. Genes make a big difference and explain, in part, why obesity can run in families and why obesity is more prevalent in some ethnic populations. However, just because we inherit these genes does not mean we will be overweight! These genes interact with behavior and environment. We can modify our behavior (e.g., lifestyle factors like daily activity, diet, exercise) to minimize the effects of these genes. However, on average, the people who carry genes for obesity will be the people that gain the most weight. For this reason, designating obesity as a disease does not absolve patients from the responsibility of adopting healthy lifestyles in combating the disease. Nor does it mean that obesity is a lifestyle choice – because it is not. It is a disease that should be treated by endocrinologists and other healthcare professionals using all the tools we have available in ways that are best suited for the treatment of individual patients.

Let’s consider those tools. In many ways, the treatment options are like a three-legged stool. The legs of the stool are the three major ways that obesity can be treated: behavior changes such as diet and exercise, bariatric surgery (surgery for weight loss) and medicines. Effective behavior or lifestyle modification programs have been developed, and the surgery procedures have been improved as well. Still, doctors have lacked effective medications for weight loss. However, recently approved medicines are now giving this stool a better leg to stand on.

In the summer of 2012, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two new weight loss medicines that have more recently become available for prescription. These medications are called Belviq® [BEL-VEEK] (lorcaserin) and Qsymia® [kyoo-sim- EE-uh] (phentermine/topiramate extended). These medications have changed the weight loss landscape by giving doctors and their patients a wider range of treatment possibilities.

This, of course, sounds great, but you’re probably wondering how these medicines actually work. Qsymia is a combination of two generic drugs that are known to suppress appetite: phentermine and topiramate — which is already available for migraine headaches and seizures — cause you to feel full or satiated. Qsymia combines these two medicines in lower doses to reduce side effects and takes advantage of the fact that they work together to produce greater weight loss. Belviq, on the other hand, acts on certain receptors (places on or inside cells where hormones and other chemicals attach) in the brain (serotonin receptors) and causes you to feel full. Both Belviq and Qsymia work within the body to improve the results of your weight loss efforts due to diet and exercise. They are meant to be taken in conjunction with making lifestyle changes because patients who combine one of these medicines with a lower calorie diet and regular exercise can expect to see more weight loss than patients who treat their obesity with diet and exercise alone. In this way, these new medicines are game changers, but should not be considered a magic weight loss pill.

And what about the side effects, you may ask? Some of the side effects of Belviq include headache, nausea, constipation, dry mouth and serotonin syndrome (high temperatures, rapid heart rate, muscle twitches, confusion). Qsymia can cause dry mouth, constipation, insomnia, tingling in the fingertips, and a tinny taste to carbonated beverages and should not be taken by people with glaucoma or an overactive thyroid. Pregnant or nursing women should not take either of these medicines. The topiramate in Qsymia can increase risk of cleft lip and palate (abnormalities in the development of the lips and mouth) if taken by women during pregnancy. Therefore, women of child-bearing potential must be on birth control while taking Qsymia and check a home pregnancy test every month so they can stop the drug immediately if the pregnancy test turns positive.

How much weight can you expect to lose on these new medications? When used together with lifestyle modifications in clinical trials, the average weight loss in patients taking Belviq was about 8 percent of their body weight (16 lbs. for someone weighing 200 lbs.), and for Qsymia was around 12 percent of their weight (24 lbs. for someone weighing 200 lbs.). These are the average responses. Some lose more. Some lose less. You may be disappointed that these drugs don’t cause more weight loss on average; for example most patients will not achieve ideal body weight or a size 4 dress size in women, or a 34-inch belt size in men. This gets down to the reason why physicians treat obesity as a medical disease and why it is important for patients and doctors to agree on the goals of therapy at the beginning of treatment.

Although these new medicines may not get you down to a size 4, the weight loss that can be achieved will make a huge difference in the quality of your health. In clinical trials, treatment with either Qsymia or Belviq plus lifestyle change was shown to have impressive benefits by improving many of the complications of obesity. If you are one of the millions of Americans living with the disease, you more than likely know all know too well what some of these complications might be. The first category of obesity complications is metabolic, which includes diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome (a combination of medical disorders that, when occurring together, increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes), high blood lipids, hypertension, fatty liver disease and higher risk for heart disease. The second type of obesity complication encompasses mechanical problems due to excess body weight and includes obstructive sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, mobility problems and stress incontinence. Weight loss can be used to improve all of these conditions.

So, are you a patient with diabetes? Hypertension? Dyslipidemia? Sleep apnea? Osteoarthritis? Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease? Stress (urine) incontinence? Well, guess what? These are all things that can be treated effectively by losing 10 percent of your body weight. This will go a long way to prevent the development of future diabetes in high-risk patients with a family history or with prediabetes. And, if diabetes is already present, this amount of weight loss will lower blood sugar and the need for diabetes medicines. It will decrease your risk for heart disease, lower your blood pressure, improve your lipids by increasing good cholesterol while decreasing harmful triglycerides, remove fat from the liver, help with mobility and improve sleep apnea. Patients may not be able to expect to reach their ideal body weight, but they can expect to lose weight to a degree that will improve complications that are the source of suffering and poor health.

This is a medical approach to fighting obesity as a disease. In a society that often treats obesity as a lifestyle failure, these new developments in medicine are altering the way in which patients can approach their health. Attitudes in our society are moving away from the incorrect notion that obesity is merely a lifestyle choice and towards the scientifically correct idea that it is a disease requiring medical therapy, particularly when patients have complications that can be treated with weight loss.

With the help of these recent obesity medicines and a solid lifestyle effort, people with obesity now have new tools and new options to achieve real weight loss results and improve their long-term health. If you are seeking treatment, it is important to determine the goals of therapy up front with your doctor; in other words, how much weight you can realistically be expected to lose, what your role is as a patient in optimizing the success of treatment, and what the goals of treatment are that will improve your health. Armed with these new medicines and new options for challenging obesity and its complications, doctors and patients working together can result in a longer, healthier life for the patient.

Alexandra Garvey is a writer and journalist from Birmingham, AL. She is a recent graduate of Hamilton College in Clinton, NY, where she majored in English. She carries a lifelong passion for advocacy work with a newfound focus on patient education.

Dr. W. Timothy Garvey is Chair of the University of Alabama at Birmingham’s (UAB) Department of Nutrition Sciences and Director and Principal Investigator of the UAB Diabetes Research and Training Center (DRTC). Since 1987, Dr. Garvey has directed an independent laboratory supported by the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute), the Department of Veterans Affairs, the American Heart Association, the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International, the American Diabetes Association and other agencies.

Is Bariatric or Metabolic Surgery Right for Me?

By Jeffrey I. Mechanick, MD, FACP, FACE, FACN, ECNU

In the ever-frustrating “Battle of the Bulge,” it is best to PREVENT weight gain. Prevention takes the form of healthy eating and physical activity. Unfortunately, many of us fall behind the curve, and over time the pounds pile on. Based on our own personal lifestyle, genetics and medical care, we become “overweight,” or even “obese” (see for more information).

If we do become obese, what are the proven treatments that our doctors can recommend? First and foremost is still a change in lifestyle. All of us can become more physically active. And all of us can control our food portions. If that doesn’t work, then there are certain medicines that help with weight loss. Medications and lifestyle changes are discussed by other authors in this issue. But sometimes lifestyle changes and medications together don’t help you lose weight. If the obesity is severe enough, then there may be a role for surgery of the digestive tract to help with weight loss.

The term “bariatric” [bah-ree-AH-trick] refers to the field of medicine concerned with weight loss. “Bariatric surgery” refers to surgery for weight loss in a person who is obese. Many of us know about complications from bariatric surgery. These complications were mostly from surgeries done in the 1950s through 1970s. During that time, many patients had life-threatening nutritional deficiencies. Fortunately, the currently approved bariatric procedures are considered to be safe and effective. Deciding to have one of these procedures requires help from an expert. This is because each bariatric surgery has its own risks and benefits. Each decision to have bariatric surgery needs to be an individual decision. Bariatric procedures are right for persons with a body mass index (BMI) of >40 (extreme obesity) or a BMI >35 if there are obesity-related complications such as diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, or sleep apnea (halted breathing while you sleep). To calculate your BMI, visit

A complete medical evaluation, including a nutritional evaluation, is needed before the surgery. Depending on one’s particular insurance policy, candidates may need to fulfill certain requirements before having surgery. These requirements should be explained by the bariatric surgeon at the time of the initial appointment. The two most common procedures are the laparoscopic [lah-pa-row-SKAH-pic] adjustable gastric band (or “band”) and the Roux [roo]-en-Y gastric bypass (or “bypass”).


In the band procedure a plastic ring-like device is placed around the top part of the stomach near the entry of the food-pipe (esophagus). It is done with laparoscopy [lah-pa-RAH-skah-pee], using instruments inserted through several small incisions in the belly. Scarring is minimal. The effect of this procedure is to limit the amount of food entering the stomach. People who have this procedure can’t overeat, so they lose weight. The band can be tightened or loosened at any time after the surgery. This way, weight loss can be controlled: not too slow, not too fast. This procedure is associated with acceptable amounts of weight loss (14 – 60% excess weight loss after 7 – 10 years from surgery). There is very little risk for nutritional deficiencies or surgical complications. Nevertheless, one in every three people who had the band procedure develops iron deficiency and need to take iron supplements. The band procedure is gaining popularity around the world.


The bypass procedure is a more involved surgery. It is usually done by laparoscopy. In this procedure, food enters a smaller stomach that is created surgically. This limits food intake, like the banding procedure. The first half of the small intestine is also bypassed. This is how the Roux-en-Y procedure also gets the name “bypass.” Digestion normally occurs in the first part of the small intestine. In the bypass, the exit to the stomach is cut and reattached to a more distant part of the small intestine. Full digestion doesn’t occur. This means there is less absorption of food, or “malabsorption.” Since this is a more involved surgery which causes malabsorption, the risks are higher. However, the malabsorption part causes more excess weight loss by 7 – 10 years (up to 70%). People who have the bypass procedure need to be monitored regularly for vitamin and mineral deficiencies and take dietary supplements as directed by their doctor.


There are other bariatric surgeries that deserve mention:

  • The sleeve gastrectomy (or “sleeve”) is a relatively new procedure, not generally paid for by medical insurance. The sleeve procedure involves the creation of a smaller stomach but without causing malabsorption.
  • The biliopancreatic [bill-ee-oh-pan-kree-AT-ic] diversion with duodenal [dew-oh-DEE-null] switch (or “switch”) is a procedure that is associated with greater amounts of weight loss. This weight loss comes with a price: more nutritional deficiencies. Sometimes “the switch” needs to be reversed because the patient loses too much protein. This procedure is much less common.


Overall, bariatric surgery is an appropriate treatment for severe obesity in patients who are at high risk for obesity-related complications, such as heart attacks and strokes. Bariatric surgery should only be considered in patients who did not have success with lifestyle changes, medical nutrition therapy, and treatment with medications.

The band and bypass procedures are safe and effective. These two procedures prolong life when performed in appropriate candidates. The weight loss that comes from bariatric surgery reverses many of the complications of obesity. Type 2 diabetes typically gets much better or even disappears after the surgery.

Bariatric surgery requires a personal commitment to a lifetime of healthy eating and physical activity. Bariatric surgery also requires long-term medical follow-up to monitor for complications. And for people who have malabsorptive procedures, there is a need for lifelong vitamin and mineral supplementation. A team approach to obesity, including dieticians and counselors, is required before and after bariatric surgery.

Jeffrey I. Mechanick, MD, FACP, FACE, FACN, ECNU, received his M.D. degree from Mount Sinai School of Medicine in 1985. He then completed his residency in Internal Medicine at the Baylor College of Medicine in 1988. After returning to Mount Sinai to complete his fellowship training in Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition in 1990, Dr. Mechanick started his private practice in Manhattan in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Support. Since then, he has become the Director of Metabolic Support and Clinical Professor of Medicine in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease at the Mount Sinai Hospital. He continues to care for many patients with endocrine, diabetes and nutritional disorders, as well as train physicians in endocrinology and nutrition.

Childhood Obesity’s Rapid Rise

Too Much “Screen Time”

Contributory and causal factors for the epidemic of childhood obesity appear to be changing and continue to be identified and evaluated. Environmental considerations seem particularly significant at this particular point in history. “Screen time,” which takes many forms (computers, televisions, handheld devices), has increased dramatically over the past five years for children and adolescents. Studies have shown that children who watch more than one hour of television per day are more likely to be obese than those who watch less. Unfortunately, the average American child watches more than four hours of television per day, totaling an astonishing two months of non-stop television watching per year. Surveys have revealed that more than 70 percent of American children aged 8-18 years have a television in their bedrooms.

Bad Diets

Dietary habits of young people have also come under increased scrutiny, given the crucial role nutrition plays in weight management and overall health. The benefit of appropriate nutrition tends to start very early on, as infants who are breastfed longer or started on solid food after four months of age are less likely to become obese as adolescents. An alarming trend has been the dramatic three-fold rise in soft drink consumption over the past 20 years. In fact, 56 to 85 percent of children in school consume at least one sugar-sweetened drink per day, including fruit-based juices. Conversely, milk consumption has been halved during this same period of time, with the exception of sugar-sweetened varieties such as chocolate milk. These trends are noteworthy, because for every sugar-sweetened drink a child has the risk of obesity increases by 160 percent. Poor nutritional intakes have also resulted in an increased prevalence and severity of dental problems in children.

In addition to more sugar-sweetened drinks, our children are also having fewer healthy, well-balanced meals. Increasingly hectic lifestyles often crowd out home cooked meals eaten with family members. Low-income and some racial/ethnic minority groups are often exposed to poor food environments, with few grocery stores and an abundance of fast-food and convenience stores. These trends are resulting in Americans consuming almost 34 percent of their meals outside of the home and accounting for 42 percent of their food budget. Past studies have shown that children who report eating fast food consume, on average, 150 more calories per day than children who don’t eat fast food, increasing their risk of gaining weight.

Efforts Underway to Curb the Obesity Epidemic

The cause of rapidly rising childhood obesity is multifactorial. As such, the related treatment modalities must also be multifactorial. Early identification of and intervention in children who are at risk of becoming obese are crucial to stemming the tide of this epidemic. Key organizations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics and the CDC, are increasing their focus on childhood obesity and providing additional treatment guidelines. For example, in overweight or obese children yet to go through their growth phase (younger than 5 years of age), the goal is weight maintenance. For older children, weight loss is recommended, since height gain alone will not correct the obesity. In these children, a weight loss goal of 1 to 2 pounds per month is noted to be appropriate.

Because most children spend a significant amount of time in the school setting, changes also are underway to improve the quality of nutrition offered at various educational sites. The American Beverage Association, with the support of the Clinton Foundation and the American Heart Association, proposed guidelines which would cap the number of calories in beverages in schools to no more than 100 per container. As of the 2009-2010 school year, 98.8 percent of all audited schools were in compliance.

What Can Parents Do?

The strongest predictor of child lifestyle choices is parental lifestyle choices. As such, many groups are now providing dietary and behavioral interventions at the family level. One such group was able to show successful weight control over 10-year periods.

Limited Role of Medication

Medication can play a role in weight management, but only one pharmaceutical is currently approved for use in adolescents. Studies in this age group are marred by significant drop-out rates, a limited number of subjects and very short-term results. Due to the lack of quality, long-term data, medications for adolescent weight management are not often recommended.

When Could Surgery be Considered an Option?

We are finding a similar situation with bariatric (weight loss) surgery. Currently, bariatric surgery is the most definitive and longest-lasting weight loss treatment. There are a small number of studies in adolescents showing significant weight loss and improvement or resolution in related conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea. In adults, patients are considered candidates for bariatric surgery if they have a body mass index (BMI; as kg/m2) of 40 or higher, or a BMI of 35 or higher if one or more weight-related conditions are present. For example, an adult who is 5’ 0” and is 205 pounds has a BMI of 40; someone who is 5’ 4’ and weighs 205 pounds has a BMI of 35.2.

In pediatrics, stricter guidelines should be followed when considering bariatric surgery. The following guidelines are usually followed:

  • BMI ≥ 40 with one or more serious weight-related condition(s)
  • BMI ≥ 50 with less serious condition(s)
  • Failure of non-surgical weight loss
  • Greater sexual maturity (Tanner stage IV or higher) and 95 percent of adult height based on estimated bone age

However, because of relative physical and psychological immaturity and limited research, consideration of adolescent bariatric surgery must occur on a very thorough and case-by-case basis.


In summary, obesity in the pediatric population has risen at an alarming pace in the past several decades. Causal factors of this epidemic are multifactorial, including economic, environmental and genetic considerations. Because obesity is a chronic disease, overweight and obese children typically progress to obese and less healthy adults. Prevention and intervention strategies must be developed and utilized to slow the devastating effects pediatric obesity is having on the physical, emotional and financial health of our country.

Dr. Manpreet Mundi is a senior associate consultant in the Department of Medicine and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition at the Mayo Clinic. He received his internal medicine and endocrinology training at the University of Southern California and Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center. His clinical interests include inpatient and outpatient nutrition health, bariatric surgery and mentoring endocrine fellows. He would also like to thank Paul A. Lorentz, R.N. for his editorial assistance.

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